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ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫԿ ҡ ӫ 󫮡.

ӫԴѡ XIX Ѭ ǡ ᡿ ѡү
ѡ ӫ Ѽ . ġ ٽ ԫ ߿, ԫ ӫ

Կ "ԴѮ " - ᬽ ӫ ߫ ߿ ߫ѡ ߫. ǡ ӿѪὫ ᬪ ԫ ӫ Կ ӫ, 󿺡 ԫӫ. ޿ , ѡ ǡѮ Ӵ ߽Կ Ӫ, 󽴽 Ѫټ ١ ߬ ԫӫ, ᬪ ڿἿ ߬ ӫ޽ѡԿ. 񫽯 ǡ ӿի

1/3 ӫ ӫ޽ѡ ӫҬ 2/5 ӫ ӫ޽ѡ ݬ߻

(6). ӫ ԫ, Կҽӫ὿ ӡٮ ӫ ޡѮ ԫ, ԫ ѻ ߬ ҡԫ ѻᵿ Ἣ Ѫ Ὧ , 﫡񫡫 - ӫ ӫ ߫ ѡ.

XIX Ѭ ѡ ѽӿ᡿ ѡ,

Ӫ ѡߴ Ѽ. ᡫ ԫ ݬ߬ Կ߬
Ѽ ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ - Ӽ᡿. Կ

Ѽ ӫ ӫ޽ѡԿ ٽ , Ѽ ǡ; ѻ ᵿ Ӫế ߬ ١ ԫӫ ԫ

ѽἿ , ݻ ӿ὿ Ѽ ӿߴ, ԫ Ὣ ѽ ѻѽѡ ӿԫӿ. Ѻҽ

ߴ ѽ , ߫Ӵѡ Ἷ Ѫ

һѮ޿ ỿ὿Կ߬ ӪἿ.

Ἣ 󫺡ѡ Կ ӫԿ ᡫ ߫ Ѽѽټ ѡѡѼ ӫӵ ݬ߬ ڿ ӿ὿Կ߬ ,

ү , ӫ޽ѡԿ. ӫ޽ѡ ǡ ի

߫ԫ ԫ: Ѽ ӫ ٽ ѽ, ӿѽ. ὿ ӫ ѽ ѽӿ᡿ ѽ,

ӿѽ ԫӫ. ǡ߬ү Ӫế ӿѬ὿
ԫ ԫ , ӫټ ӿٽ 󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ỿ. Ѻҽ Ѽ ỿ ӫ߽ Ѽ ӫ ݬ߻ ǡ: ԫ ߬ ԫӡ

ݬ߻ 1900 1912 . ѽ 77%, ԫ ݬ߻ ỿ ԫ ӿ ӫ 624%. Ҽ ߬ ỿὫ󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ӿ 1902-1914 . ӫ߽ ӿӡ ԫ

(6,.34). Կ ᡿Ѯ ӿ߿ ӿٽ (ӿ,

ỿ, 󽫪ѡٮ ԫү ӫ޽ѡ ὴ, ӿ߿
ӿٽ 500%), Ѭ὿ ỿ ѡ ӫ޽ѡԿ. Ѻҽ ߬ ӫ޽ѡ ᡫ Ѯ. ӫ ԫ, ǡ ếߴ Դ ӿ, Դ޿ߴ Կ 20

, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿ ӿ 1900 1914 ٽ
Ѻ ӿ. ߽ 1900 . 񫽯 ǡ ӿի񿽫 29,7% ӫ 22,1% ӫ ӫ ҡ, ԫ 1913 . 񫽴

һ ߫ѡ 21,8% 13,2%. (6, .34). ӫ ԫ, ǡ

Կ ٽ , ԫ ԫ ѡ Կ

߻߫὿ ߬ѡ ӫ ӫ޽ѡԿ.

ԫ Ѽ, ߬ ӫ޽ѡ Ӵ ի, Ӽ߬ ӿ Ѽѽ ӫ߽. ԫ ӫ
Կ߬, ݬ߬ ٽἿ. ӫү ӫ
ᡫѡ ݬ߬ ڿ Ӽ᡿ Ὣ ѽ
ѡ Ἣ ᡿ᡡ ԫ Կ - ߿
Ѻҽ ᡬ-߬ 󫮡 1870 .
ū߽ ᡵҺ߬ ӫ ѵѼ ӿ ӿӿ ӽ ߬: "
񿽿 ; ѻ Ҫ ӫߴ Ӫ
Կ ӫѡԿ" (5,.6). ԫ ҡ ٽ ߽ Ѽѵ ӪếѮ. ᡬ-߬ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿ ӿԫӿ
ӿѡ - ؽ ӿ. ӿ, Ӵ ӫ, ᪡Ѯү ӫ ԫ ѽѺ Դѽ ӫ޽ѡԿ - ԡԿ, һ. ѽү ӫ ὿ ݬ߬ ԫ - ӿҵ 5 . ᡬ, ѡ ᡵ ߫ ѡᵿ ỿὫ
ӫ޽ѡԿ Ҭ . 14 - 1900 1913 . - ٻ ҡ Ӽ᡿ ӫ߽ Ѽ , Կ 󿡫
񡴽 ٻ ὿ - Ѻҽ, ҡ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿
Ѽ ӫ ѡ ѽѺ , Ѽ ٻ ὿
Կ 1,7 ի񿽿 ߬.

ѡ Ѻѡ ǡ ߻ӿ὿ Ѽ ӫ Ӽ߬ ޡѮ
ԫ. ߡټ Ἷ ݬ߻ Ӽ᡿ ٽ Ҽѡ, ޿,
ݽѬӫա߬ ѽ, տ߬ ӼԿ߬ ӫҬ, ѽ
ӫ޽ѡԿ, .., Ӽ᡿ ߡ Ὣ ߬
ԫ, ӿѼ ӿԫӿ, ޿ ߡ 󴺿 ǡѮ. ߻ Ѽѵ ޡѮ ԫ ߻߫ ߿Ѽ ӿ ӿ߬ ӿ, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿ 70- XIX Ѭ ٽ ѡ ߿Ѽ ӫѬ - ѡ Ἣѡ ޽ 󫺿 - Ѫ ԫ. 1900 . Ӽ߬ 󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ߫󽴽
15 . ӫ, 1914 . Կ Ҫ 35 . ӫ ߫󽴽
߬ 2/3 ᡵҺ߬"(6, .34). ӿ 1871 1889 . ԫ Ӽ᡿ ѽ 1400%, ԫ Ѽ ߬ ѽ 25%. ߽
Ѭԫټ ᪡ټ , ԫ ԫ ӿ ӫ
Ѽѵ ԫ ӫ 300%, ߬ - 125%, Ѽ ٿ὿ 300%, Ӵ 11%, ὿ Ӵ 20%,
Ѽ - ٿ὿ 400% (5, .6). ߻ Ӽᡵ ߻߫Ὣ ԫ , ԫ Ӽ᡿ ӫѡ ѡ , ӫѡ ޿ӫ
߽ ѽѡ, ٽ ԫ , ԫ 󽴽 Ѽѵ
ӿѽѮ ߬ ١ ԫӫ ᡿Ѯ.

Ӽ᡿ ӿ 񫽪 ٽ ߿ٮ ᡿ ߫ . 󫺼 Կѡ ᬿ-
ѽ Ѻҽԫ ӫ Կ Ѻ ڿ
񡫮 ߽ 񿻽Կ߬ ѡ Ӽ᡿ ҽᪿ᡿ ӫ߬ ӿ 1905 ١Ҫѡ ӫ ǡѮ ߬ ӫ. 󫺡 Ѻѡ ӫԿ ߫
ѮѮ ӿѮ - ǡѮ. ӫԴѡ ԫԿ ǡ Ѻѽ ߻ . ԫ 󿽫 ߽Ѽ ԫ, ԫ ǡ - ӫ, ԫ Ѯ ٽ ߫Ӫ , Ѽ իԡү Ӽ. Ӽ᡿ , ӫԿ, ٽ
Կѡ ᡫ, ߡү ӫ 񫽪 ٽ իԡ Ӽ. ѡѼ Ӽ߬ ӿ, ѡ, ԫ
"߬ ӫ ߻" (4,.581) Ὣ
὿ ߿ ѡ-߬ ڿ ѡ. ӫ ԫ ߫Կ, ԫү 񫽪ѡ ٽ Ӽ᡿, ٽ
ѫի Ѽѵ ԫ ӿ Ӽ᡿ ѽѺ
ӫ ߽ 󫮡. ٽ Լѡ , Ӵ
ӫԫ ӫ޽ѡԿ, ӫի񿽫 ڿ᡿ ѡ ߬ҽ Ӽ᡿.
Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿Ѯ ѽ ѡ
ǡ . 1908 1912 . Ӽ᡿ ᬽὫ Ѫ 4
Ѯ , ԫ 2 ڿ (6, .131).
ǡ߬ ѽ Ὣ, ԫ ѡ-߬ Ӽ᡿ ǡ ԫ ߴ Ѽѵ Ἷ ӫ, ߫ ӫ ߬ ҡᵿ ӿ߬ ӿ
߽ 󫮡. ԫ ٽ Ѻ ߡ, ǡ, ᬪ Ӽ᡿, ѽ ӫ . 櫺
ԫ, ǡ Դҽ ѡ-߬ Ҫѡ, ԫ
ӫ񫽪 󻽫 ӫ 󫮡. Ԭ ѡ
ѡ Ѯ - "ԫ" ߿ ӫᵿ Ѫ Ҽ ӪἿ, Ѯ, ԫ ǡ ѽ
񿵿 ѿ, ὿ ѡү ӫ. ,
1908 . ǡ ѽ 8 ԫ, Ӽ᡿ - 7. 櫫ԡѡ ӫѡߵ ӫ Կ ٽ ᬿ: 51 - ǡ 24 - Ӽ᡿ (6,
. 131). Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿ ߿ ԡ߿ѽ ߬,
߫ԡѡ ѡ-߬ ߿ ὿ ӿߴ ӿԡ. ԫ
ԫ ߽, ӫ, ߿ Ҫѡ, ԫ
߻߫Ὣ Ӽ὿ᵿ Ѫҡӫ ԡѡ. ѼὫ ѻѡ
᡿ ᡫ ٽ 󿡫ԫ Ѽѵ ѽ, ԫӫ Ѻ
߬ ӡ ѡ 񽫪ѡ ߬
ѽѮ ᡿ѡ ߬ Ҫѡ. ԫ Ӫ
ѡ, Ѯ ǡ ӿ ӿ " ߬ Ѽѵ ", ߼Ӵ ԫ ӫ 󫮡 ǡ Ὣ ߫᡿ ޫ ի Ѽѵ.

󫺼 ޿ѽ ի ѡ ߿ ԫ ǡ Ӽ᡿ ߬ ߫ 񻫽Ѽ 󫮡, ӿѼ Ӫ ӿѽ ߻ի. 佴 ǡ ᬿ ߫ ᡵ. ߡ ѡ Ѫ ڡ ߫: ǡ, ᡵ ٽ ټ ټ ӪἿ, ڿڿ ѡ
ạ Դ ; ӫ ԫ, ᡵ, ǡ ὿ ߿ѡ ѡ ڿ Ӽ᡿ - ǡ ٽ ѡ Ѽѵ , ᡵ, Ѯ ү ᡿ Ӽ᡿Ѯ, ٽ ߡ իԡ Ӽ. ᡵ
ԫ ѽ ӿԫӿ ѡ Ӽ᡿ - ݬ
Ӵ ԫ ӿ ٽ Դѽټ ӫ.
ի Ӽ߬ Ӽ ᡵҺ߬, ѽ ᡵ ٽ
ᬪ ᮡ ῡ߫ᡫ ߫ ǡѮ ɫ߿Ѯ.
ɫ߿ ٽ ᪡ټ ߫ ǡ ᡵ, ٽ ԡ, ԫ Ӽ߬ ѡ ᡿ ի 󫮡 ӫ, ԫ ӫ Դ. Ѯ ԫӫ, Ӽ᡿ ߫ ӫѡٮ ߫ - ѡԿ߬
߫ Ӽ᡿, ӫ-ѡӿ ὿. ὿ ӫ-ѡӿ ѽ
Ѻ ӿԫӿ ѡ , ԫ
ѡ, ԫ ӿѽ ߽ ի ὿ ǡ.
ǡ Ҽѽ 󫮡 ޿ ߻ӡ ӫ Ѫ Ἷ
߫߿ Ѽ ῼ һ, ԫ ѽὫ ǡ ӫ
᡿ᵿѮ, Ѽ ӫѡٮ ߫. ᬿ ẫ, ᬽѡ ߫
ǡ ߻ѽ , Ѽ Ӽ᡿ - Ҽӡ Ӫ ǡ
ի ӫѡ ߫, ԫ 󫽴 ǡ Ѵߴ
Ѯ 󫮡 ߽, ߽ ӿ ӫٮ . Ӽ᡿ ԫ ߽ ӫ
󫮡.

ӫԴѡ ߽Ѯ Կ XIX Ѭ ߬ Ӽ߬
Ὤ὿ Դ Ѽ . ߫ү ӫ Կ
ӫԿ ӿѽ ӿ, ԫ Ǻ Ѽ ԫ -
ߡ ѡ Ӽ߬ 񿻽Կ. 80- XIX . Ӽ᡿ Կ ƫ, ҡ, ԫү ӿ - Կ߬ ߽
ѻѽѡ Ѫ ӫѮ߬ Ἷ ӿԫӿ. ѻ Ѽѵ ӫ޽ѡԿ ԫ 󽴽 Ѽѵ
ѽ ӿ ߿ ޿ѡ Ѯ ӿ. ӡ ԫ ԡѡ ߬᡿, ѽᡡ ټ, ڿ ᡵӫ, ԫ -ѬѼ ᡡټ ѽ Ѭ 1897 . Ѯ :" Ѽѡ, Ѽѵ 񡫼
߫Ѯ һ Ѽ, - , 󽴽 ,
ѫӿ,- Կ Ѽѡ ӫ޽...񡿼 ߽: իԿ
ԫ ѡ, Ѽ ߫Ѽ"(6, .36). ᪡ ӿԫӿ, Ѽ, Ѻټ ߬Ѽټ ի񿽿 Ҭ ӫѮ߬ ԫӫ, ԫ ߫὿ ѽߴ
Ѽ ԫ ٽ. Ӽ᡿Ѯ ԫ 󫺼Կ: ߴ 󫮡 ԡ Ҫ ӿԫӿ, ߡ ԫӫ Ѽ
᡿ ӫ ѽ , ԫ ٽ Ӽ Ѻ߿, Կ߬ 󽴽 Ҭ. ӫ ԫ, Ӽ᡿ Ѽ ߿Ἷ ӫԿԫ ѮѼ ޿ѡ ӿ߬ ӿ ڿ ߫ӡ.
ūԬ Ӽ᡿ ԡү ӫ ӫ Կ ٽ
߻ޡټ - ӫ ếߴ ӿ Ѫ ǡѮ ᡵѮ
᡿ѡ 󽿴, ӫ ѡ ᮺ 鿽ѽ
Ѽѵ ߫ ӫ, ѼԿ ѡ Ӽ߬ ᡫ߬ "" Ѽ - .. ᵿ
"٪ ", ὿ Ӽ᡿ ӫ ӡ 񫽿 ᡵҺ߬ 諡. ūԫ Ӽ᡿ ١Ҫѡ ٽ ߽ Ԭߴ
ӫ ӿѡѡ ߿ Կ ӫ ǡѮ, ӿѡ
, Ӽ᡿ ߿. ߼Ӵ ү Ӵ, Ӽ߬ ѽ ޽ ү
Ӽ὿ᵿ ԡѡ ǡѮ Ὣ ӿ ߽
Ѯ, ߫ѡ ѫԿ߬ Ҽ
ԫ὿ ӫᵿ. 90- XIX Ѭ Ӽ߬ ѽ ߬Ὣ ߽ ӿ߬ ӿ, ԫ ݬ߻߿ ӿ߬
ỿ὿. ټ Ѻټ ԫѡѼ ǡ Ӽ᡿ ߬ ӿ, ԫٮ ӫ񫽪ߴ ӿӡ 1895 1899 . 90- ת ӿ ޽ ԫӫѡ ὼẫ. ӿԫӿ, ԫ ٽ ԫӫѡ, ի񿽿 Ҭ ӫ - ߬ ѽѡ. ӫ ߡ὿ ת ӿ ӫ Ѽѽ, ԫ ݬ߻ᵿ ѡ
ѽѡ ӿ. XVIII Ѭ Ѽ ӫ ӿ޽ , ԫ,
ߡ ӫ , ߡ὿ ߬ү . ӫ ԫ, ѻѡ ߬ Ҫ ߫ ԫӫ, ԫ
߽ ѡ Ѽ.
ū߽ ԬԿ 񡿬 ߬ ӿԫӿ
Ԭ ᡿ ߬ ߻Ἷ - Ѽ ᡪ. ټ Ѽ ٽ ߫ᡡ 1890 ӿ߬ ת-
ӿ߬ ᡿ ( ) Ὣ ߿ ɫ - 󽿴ѽ ߬ . ᡿ ӿ 񡿬 ӫ
ӿٽ, ߬ Ѻѡ ҽ ӯ ޿
. Ѭ 1895 ӿ ѡ Ӫѡ ߬ Կ, ԫ ѽ ᡿ߴ ݬ߻񿵿
ỿ Ѽ߫ - ߻󿪡 ߿ ɫ. ݬ߻񿵿 Ѽ߫ ѡ ߻ի - ٽ Ἷ. ԫ ѡ ѽ ޿ߴ Ӽ᡿. ᮺ 鿽ѽ II ٽ Ѻѡ ӫ ѽἼ, ԫӫ ӿ, ԫ " ߻󿽿 ᡡټ Ἷ, ӿ
Ҫѡ Ӫ"(6,.42). ѽἼ ٽ ߵѡѡ
ǡ ٺ. ԫ Ӽ߬ ԫ ߻߫Ὣ
߬ ӿ. ԫ ߽үڿ ԫѡ ߽ Ӭ Ѻ߽
ݬ߬ ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫԿ: ԫ Ҭ Կ ӫ, ԫү ὿ ѡ ԫ һѮ޿ ᡬ ǡ Ӽ᡿. ߬ ߻ ԫҽ ѡ ߫ һӫ, ԫ ԫ
ạ ᮫ . ԫ ٽ , Ѽ ߿Ѽ
ɫ߫, 񡫮 ԫӫ, "Ѽѵ ᡬ" - һѮ ߫
᡿ᵿ Ӽ᡿, Ѽ ѫ 濼ѡ߫. 諽ᵿ Ѽ Ѫѡ ᡿ ӫټ ӿ
Ҫ ӿԫӿ ٽ ѡ Ἷ. ԫ һ - ߬ү ᡿. ת ӿ Կ 󽴽 ᡿ ߿ ɫ. ӫ ݬ߬ ٽ ԫ ѽѼ
Կ߬, ԫ ᬪ ݬ߬ү 񫻽Ѭ
ӫԿ. Կ ߬ ѽ ɫ ߬ 󽿴 ӿԫӿ, ԫ Ѯ ѡ -
ӡү ү ɫѺ. ɫѺ ᡿ ߫ѡټ ѡټ ӴἿ, ԫ ߫޿ ߽
. Ѽ ߬ ӿ ӫ ߫ү Կ߬ү Կ, 󬽯 ߬ 󿺿ԫ ӽ ҽᪿ᡿ ߻ӡ ӫ߫. ɫ ߬ߴ 󫮡 Ἷ : "ԫ 󫮡 ᬵ ѡ" (4,.589).
"Ѽѵ ᡬ" ѫ 濼ѡ Կ Ἣ ӿ 󡿼᡿
, 25% ӫ 󽴽 ߫ ߫ү . Կ߬ 󽴽 Ӽ߬
Ҭ ԫ, ԫ ߽ ᡫѡ Ӽ߬ ӫѬԫ Ἷ Ѽѵ ѡ ԫ ӿ -񡫮 ӿ
߫񿡴 ѻү ѻ, ԫ ٽ ի ӫᡡ ѡ.
ѽἼ ԫ 鿽ѽ II ٽ ԫ Ὣ Ӽ߬
һѡ . ԫ Ѽ ᡿ ԫ ӫ ѡ ޽ ޿ӫ ѡ ỿ
߻ӡү ӿԫӿ. Ἣ 󡫮 ӿ ԫ ݬ߻߿ ٽ ѽ᡿ ߻ Ѻ ߬Ѽ ὴ. ߬ Ӽ᡿ ѽ 󫺼Կ Ӵ ݬ߻ᵿ ߫ ὴ ߽Կ ѡ- ߬ , ޽ ѡ Ӽ ԫ . ޿
񻫽, ԫ ԫ һ ѿ ӫ ɫ 濼ѡ ٽ ῡ߫ ԫ. ԫ ѡ ޿ӫ Ӫế. ūԫ-ԫ ᬿ, Ὣ, Ѻѽ ߫Կ ѡ
߿ ӫ ѽѺ ӫ ӿ὿ Կ߬ ѡ. ӫԬ ӫ ٽ ߫ "ӽ߬ ת-ӿ߬
ѽѺӫ ᡿" ( ԿѼ Ѽѵ ᡬ "ԡ "),
߬ ᬵӡ ٽ Ѫѡ ѫ 濼ѡ߫ .. ߿߬ ӿӫ, ݬ߬ ѡ ӿ
Կ߬ү ߬, ߽Ҫ 񿻽Կ߬ ӫ
ѡ ѼἿ Ἷԡ - ߻ ߬ 񿻽ԫ ԫ ӿӫᡡ Ӽ ӫ ӫ޽ѡ 迡 (4, .567). Կ ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ ߿ᵿ ߬ ߫ѡ
ѽ. Ž Ѽ ٽ ӫ ѽѺү ӫ ԫ ӿ ߬ ѡ-Ӭ Ѻ ԫӿ (4,.589). ԫ ٽ
ѡټ ԫ, Ѻ ԫٮ 󽴽 ԫ ߫ Ѽ ӫ. ūԡ, ԫ ԫ ٽ ԫ ǡ ޿ Դ
߽ 󫮡, ǡ Ѽ Ѻ ߴ ߫ѡ ӫ
Ҫڿ ӫ. ߽ , ԫ , ԫ Ѽѵ ӫ 񫽪 ٽ
ӫի ԫ . ӿ߬ ӫ޽ѡ Ѽ ԫ
ѽ - ӫ ѽѺ ӫ ѡ
Ѽѡ ӿ ỿ . ǡ߬ ѽѺ ӫ 񫽪 ٽ ӫի Ѯҡ - ԫ
. ߽޿ߴ ԫѽ ߬ ѽ Ὣ, ԫ Ѽ
Ѽ. Ҫѡ ߿ ǡ ٽ ԫ ԫ, ԫ
ӫ ѡ Ѽ ߿, Ѽ , ԫ ߽ 󫮡 ὿ ҡ "ᵿ ӿӫ  Ѯҡ". Ѻҽ 1898 . 﫡 ޿ ӿԿ
߫ѡ Ӽ߬ ᮺӫ. ԫ ѽ ӽ ӿ Ҫ
һٮ ߿ ɫ. ѽ 󿺿 ٽ Կ
߫߿ ӫ ӿ߬ ѽ ѽѺ ӫ. ѡ ߻ի - ߫߿ ٽ ѡ. һ ߫ ԫӫ Ӽ᡿ ۴ߡ Ѽ, ԫ ԫ Ѽ 󡿼᡿ ᮺ Ѭߴ ԫ - ߻ߴ ߼߬ ӿ ҽ Ӽ᡿ ѡ޿ ߿. ߫ٮ աѽ ת-ӿ߬ ݬ߻߿ - ѫ 濼ѡ ԫ Ѽѡ ԫ ս ߬ . ߿ߴ
ѡ ߫ ԫӫ ߬ ӫ޽ѡԿ ԫ ѡѪ ᡿ ᡿ᡡ ᬵӡ ,
ӿٽ ԫ ٽ Ѭ. ūԫ ӿѺ ɫ 濼ѡ ӫѽ
Ѽӽѡ ( ԫ ᮡ ү ᬵ
Կ󡫮 Կ) - ߫ߴߴ ѡ ߫߿ ӫ ߬ ѽѺ ӫ. ӫ ԫ,
ӫ ߫ԫ 񡿬 ߬ ɫ޿ Կ, ԫ "񡿬 իӫѼ ߫ԫ, Ѽ 󿡫 Կ ߬ Ѻѡ ӯ" (1, .567) ߫ԫ
ѡ, ߽ "Ѽѵ ᡬ" ի ᬿ-ԫ Ѽ ԫ. ի ԫ, 濼ѡ ߬ߴ
ӫ ӿ߬ ѽ.
ӿ 1899 . ӽ, ߿ ɫ Կߴ ᮺӫ. ԫ Ѽѡ ᮺ ٽ ѡ ѽἿ Ѽ ԫ, ԫ
ѽ ߬Ὣ ի . 黫߽ Ѽ
ɫ Ҭ Կ, ԫ ԫ Ѽ ӫԿ ᮺӫ ߬ ߽ "߫Ἷ", ѽ ٽ ޽ (4,.573). 黫߽ Ѽѵ 񿻽, , ԫ Ӽ᡿ ߼ Ӫ , Ԭӫѡ ᪿӫ὿ Ѽ- ǡ 櫽ӿ, , ԫ ߬ ӫ - ԫ
ᬫ , ԫӫ ԫ ӫԫ Ԭߴ. Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿ ǡ ᬽ ᮡٮ , ԫӫ Ӽ᡿ ѡ
Ѯ὿ ᡿ Ѯ ߬ ӫ Ἣ
ƿի - ᪡ ҡ һ ߬ ӿ߬ Կѡ. ū ԫ ὿ ᡡѬ߿ӫ ѡ-Ӭ ߫ Ѯ ԫ ѽ. ԫ
Ὣ, ԫ Ѽ Ԭߴ ӿԴ᡿ , ԫ ,
Ѭ ӫ ѡ. ū ߽ , " ߽, ᡫ
ᬫ, ԫ ӫ, ӫ, Ӵ " (4, .581).

߼Ӵ ޡ Ѯ὿ᵿ ԡѡ, ߡ ӫѼ
ߡ὿. ج߬ ѡ ߫ ԫӫ ǡ Ӽ᡿
ӫ񫽪Ὣ; ӫ ԫ, Ӽ߬ ӫ޽ѡ, ޿ ߬ ݬ, ߼ӿߴ ټ ߫
ѽ. Ѽѵ Ӽ߬ ߫ - Կ ᵿ὿Կ߬ Ӫế
- ߻ 󫺼ѡ ᡿
"Alldeutsche Blaetter":" ǡ, ߫ѡ, ߽Ҫ ߡ᡿Ѽ Ѽ ᡿ ת ӿ" (4, .583). Ѽ ѡ,
޿ ѽ ߫ Ѭԡٮ Ѯ὿ ٽ , ޿ߴ һ, ᡡ ǡѮ, իԴ ѡ Ѽѵ
ѽ Ѽ ѡ ӫԿ Ѫ Ἷ ѽӿ᡿Ѯ. ߽޿ߴ ԫѽ, 󫮡 ߽Ҫ ټ ԫ ի ҪѮ Ӽ Ӽ᡿, ԫ ὿ ޿
ӫ, . Ѯ ԫӫ, ߬ Ӽ ᬪ
ᪿ὿: ߬ Ӽ ӫ Կ ѽ߬ ԫ ߬ ѽ, իԴ , ѽ
(4, .564). ӫ ԫ, ᮺ ߽ѡ ѡ 󡿼᡿ ǡ
ԫ. ԫ Ѽ, Դѽ 󫮡 Ѽ
ǡ 櫽ӿ ټ ӫ ӫ Ἣ,
ԫټ ǡ ޫ ѫիԫ. Ѽ Ӽ߫ ҽ ԫӿ ᡵ . ế ԫ ѽ᡿
ѽ :" Ӵߴ ӿ
񫽪 ߫ Խѡ...ԫ իԿ ߻
ѡ . ᬫ ٽ Ԭ Ѯ 񿻽Կ, ߽ ѽ ӿѽ ѡ ӫ, 󫺡ڿ Ѫ Ἷ ǡѮ, Ѫ ӫ Ἣ."(4, .587)

Ѯ὿ ߫ӡ, ߬ ѽ ӫ ѽ ѽ 󫮡, ӿѡ Կ "᡿ " - ۴ѡ ޿ ᡿ Ὧ. Ӽ߬ ѽ ᡿Ὣ ޿ټ ѡ Ҫ , Ѽѵ ҽ
߫ᡴ 񿼫 ԫ, ԫ Ӽ᡿ ӿ , Ὤ Կ ӫ ޿ѽټ Ѯ󿴼. ᮺ ԫ Ѽ ᮡ
߫Ѯ Կ Ѭԫ ѡ Ӽ߬ ߫, ԫ ᡿὿ ӫ ӫ 󫮡 ת ӿ. ԫ
Ӵ ٽ ߫ ᡿Ѽ "Ӽ߬ " ӿ Կ 󫮡 ԫӫ ӫ.

ӫ ү Ӵ ԡѡ ǡѮ, Ӽ߬
ѽ ߫Ὣ ߿ ԫ ѡ. Ѽѵ Կ ӻѽ ѽ ѡѡ ߫ Ѽѡ ԫ ߼Ӭ. Դ ѽѺٮ ᡵ ԫ ӫԿ
ǡ, ᡵ ɫ߿ ԫ ӫ, ӿӿԡټ Կ
Ὣ ӫѮ߬ ѡ. ٽ ߼Ӭ "ԫٮ ӫ ԫ Ѯ ߬ ެ" ѻ ޽
ӫ޽ (1). ūԿ, ԫ 󫻽ѡ ѡ
ᮺ 鿽ѽ II " ѡ" - Կ߬ ԫ. ᡫ, ԫү Ӽ᡿ Կ ӿ 󡿼᡿, ٽ
ӵ. XIX Ѭ ߼߬ ӿ Կ Ҭ ǡ, ᡵ , Կ, ɫ߿. ԫ ߽ ӫѡ Ӽ߬
ӫ޽ѡ ӿӫ ߫ ټ ѡ὿ᡡټ
ټ Ἷ. XX Ѭ ѡ Ѻ ѡ. ӫѼ 󽿴 Ӽ᡿ ӫү Կ ߻ 񿻽Կ ӵ. ӵ 󽴽 ѡԿ Ѯ ӫ޽ѡ,
ѽ߬իѡ ѡ ڿ. ѽ߬ ի ի񿽫
һ; Ӽ ٽ ի ᡿ Ҫѡ; ӫ޽ѡ
ᬫ . Կ իߴ Կٮ ԫٮ ߻
- ҽ ҽ Ἷ, ԫٮ ѽѡ Ѯ .

ѡٮ ߻Ѭ, ԫӫ ӵ 󽴽 ѡ, ٽ ѫ߬ ѡ Ѫ Ѻ ߬Ѽ, ԡԿ, ԡ ώ. ӵ ի ٬ Կѡԫ -
Ǻ, ӫ ӿ. Ҭ իߴ ի ӡ - ѽ. ӫ ԫ, Ӽ᡿ ٽ ᪡ ԫ, ԫ ǡ ѽ
ԫ ӵ ӿԫӿ, ԫ Ӽ᡿,
Կ ѽѡѡ ǡ, Կ.
ẫ᡿ ǡ ӫ ѽ ޿ ѡ Ӽ᡿,
߽ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿ ԫ ߴ ӫ. ԫ
߼߽ ӵ, ӿ ߫үѮ ѻԫ Ӽ, Դ ߬ ߿ ӫѮ߬ 󫮡 ߬. ᬫѵ, ߽ 󫮡 Ҭ ӵ ի ᪡ Ѽ߬
ҡᵿ, ɫ߿ ߫Ἷ. Ѯ
߻ѬԿ ӵ ߽Ҫ Ӽ Ѽѵ һѡ .
ǡ Ѽ ԫ ѽ . ү , ٽ ῡ߫ Ѽ߬ ӫ ߻ѬԿ ԫ ᡡѬ߿ , ԫ ٽ ӿԫ Ѽ ӫ 󫮡
Ҭ ߬ ǡ .. ӫ ԫ, ǡ
Ѽ Ҭѻ ߫ , ԫٮ ӵ. , ,
ǡ ѡ ү ߫Ἷ ᮫
߿߬ ὿. ԫ, ԫ, , ԫ ǡ ٽ ߿ ߽ѡ ӵ, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿, ӫԿ, ٽ ῡ߫ Ҭѻѡ ӵ, ӿ 񡫼 ߽: ӵ 񫽪 ٽ ߴ Ӽ᡿. ԫ ѽ, Ӽ߬ ᮺ ߫ "Ὣ ټ ".
ġ Ҫ߬ ԡѡ ҽ Ἷ , Ѽ ټ,
ߡ ߫.
߫Կ߬ Կ ᮺ ߫ԡү ҽ,
߽ ԫ Ҫ ٽ Ѭ ڿ.
ߡ ῼѮ ᮺ ߫ ԫ Ӽ᡿,
ᮺ Ѽѵ ӫ޽ѡԿ ٽ ӡ Ӽ߬
Կ ԫ Ѽѡ. ߽ ߬ ԫӫ Կ߬ ԫ ѡ, ԫ ߫-ݬ߬, ԡ ѻѡ Կ߬ - "Ѽѵ ᡬ" (4,.569). ӵ, Խ ὴ, Ӽ᡿ ٽ Կ߬ ߫. ūԫ 1880 ҽ ӫ ߫ ߼Ӭ Ի ѡү ߿ Ѽѵ ѡὫ ⫽Ѽ. ߿ ⫽ ߬ѽ ӡ. 񡫮
ԫӫ, 󽿴Ѽ Ѽ ѵ Ӽ ߽ ӫ߽
ӫӼ߬ ӫѡ ӫ (ԫ Ὣ Ѻᮡ ᪡ټ ԫӫ ߽). ԫӫ, ѵ Դ ٽ ᬽѡ ӡᵿ ѵ Ӽ,
ѵ ӫ Ӽ᡿. ᬿ ẫ, ѡ ߿ ⫽
ӫ Ѽѵ ӫ޽ѡ ӵ. ӵ Կ ᡿ Կ իԡ. ԫ Ѽѡ Ѽѵ ỿ ߻ѽ ߬ӫԿӫ ߼߬ ӿ, ԫ ӫԿ󡿬 ߡ ߫ Ӽ᡿Ѯ 󽿴ѽ ѵ 󡿬 ٽ. ӫ ԫ, ҽ
Ѵߴ Ӽ᡿ ߡ ѡ ǡ ᡵ Ѽ ټ ὿ Ѯ Ӽ᡿, ǡ ᡵѮ. Ӽ᡿ ߡ ѡԫ ᬪ ߫ ӵ.
1881 ߫὿ ԫ߬ .
᡿ᵿ ٽ ӿ Ӫ ӵ ݬ߬ ߿Կ
ӫ. ѡ ߫᡿ ԫ ᡿ᵿ 񫽴 Ӽ᡿ Ѽ ӵ ӫѮ߬ 󡴽 4,5% ӫ 80 . ӫ. 90- , Ӵ ѽѺӫ ӫѽ ӵ, 񫽴 Ѽѵ ỿ - 1898 . Ӽ᡿ ߴ
ԫ ԫ (12,1%) Ѫ ǡ (10,9%). ᡵ
߫ᡴ ԫ ү ѡ 񫽴 ߫ 44,9%.
1912 . Ӽ᡿ ߴ ԫӫ ԫ (20%) ߽ ᡵ (57%)
(1, .12). ߽ 󿺿ԫ ᮺ ӵ Ѽߴ Ѽѵ .
ү ԫ ٽ ҪѮ Ӽ һ Һ, ޿
һ ѵ ѽ. ӵ ѽ ޿ Ҫѡ Ѯ Ӽ, ٽ ١Ҫѡ
Ѽѵ ᡬӫ. Ѻҽ ݬ߬ ѡ ӵ Ὣ ѽ Ѽѡ. ӵ Ԭߴ ᬿ ߫ ᡿ᵿ, Ѽѵ ᡬ, ߬ԫ-Ѻѽ, Ѻѡ ᡬ. ᡿Ѽ Ҫѡ Ӽ᡿ Ѽ
Ѽ ӿѡ ᬫ ѬԿٮ ԫ ӫѡ ỿ,
ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ. 1898 . Ѽѵ ѽ ߴ ԫѡ ߬ ӫѽ
ӵ ߿ ӫѽ ǡԫ߬ ѽѺ ӫ.
ӫѽ ӫ ԫ ӫѮ߬, ӿ߬ ᡿.
"Ѽѵ ᡬ" ٽ ѡ ߽ ӫѽ, ԫ ٽ
ԫ ټ Ӽ᡿, ߬ ټ ӵ. ԡԿ, ѵ ạ Կӫ ѽѡٮ ӫѡ ӿٽ
߽ 񫻫ѡ Ἷ ߿Ἷ. ԫ ٽ ޿ ߻ Ӽ᡿ Ѽ ԫ XIX Ѭ. һἿ ߫ ԫӫ ѵ ѽ ᮺ ѡ ԫ ӫү ᵿү Կ, ӫү ҽ Ἷ ԡѡ Ӽ. ӿ Կѽ ҽ Ἷ ߬ ҽӡ
ӿ߬ Ӵ Ѻ὿ Ӽ߬ ѽѡ. ӫ ԫ, - Ѫ ҽ Ἷ ӿѽ ѵү Ӽ ٮ
һ - ٽ ѡ Ѯ޿ ѡ ߬, ߬ ѡ,
߫ѽ ᡴ һ 񫽪Ѯ Խ ѡ. ūԫ, ӵ 1908 . ӫ޽ 񫡫ߡ ᡿ Կ " ӫ" (.. ӫ) Ӽ᡿ ԫ
ӫѽ ߿Ѯ޿ ޫ. ūԿ ѵ ѽ ߿ٮ ѡ ԫӫ ǡ. ǡ
ѫ᡿ᵿ , ߫Ҫѡ ԫ. ҽ ٽ ߡ
"ᵿٮ ᡬ ӵ" ԿѼ ߬ ỿ
Ҭ ӿ߬ ᡫ ӡ ѽ. ǡ ߡ Կ ӫٮ ӫ -  ٽ ѡ
߿ ӫѡ ݬ߬ Ӽ ǡԫ, ᡿ ٽ ạѡ ټ ߻Ѭԫӫ ѵ Ἣѡ. ӫ ԫ, ߿ ߫Ἷ, ӫѡ ӿᵿ ߫Ҫѡ ԫ Ѫ ߿߬ ὿. Ὣ, , Կ Ѽ, ٽ Ӵ. ѵ
Ҭ ߫᡿ , ߿ һӫ ԫӫ Ӽ߬ ӿѡᵿ. ԫ ٽ Խ ѵ ѡ, Ѽ ӫ޿ ԫ Ӽ᡿. Ѫ , ԫ ٽ III
ѵ ӻ, ҽ - ռ -, 꺺-, ǽ
ɿ- ߬ ѡ ӽ߬ ѡ Ѽ.
Ӽ ѡ ߿ , ԫӿ
ٽ ѡ ߫. ԫ Ὣ 鿽ѽ II Ӫ: "
󫽯 ߫ѡ "ټ ӬἿ" ӿ 﫡, 񡫮 ӼѮ Կ ߬ѽ ѡټ Ӽ᡿ .. "Ѽѵ
Ἷ". ġ Ἣԡ ߽ -Ѽѵ. ԫ ѡ 󫽯"
(1,.22). ūԿ Ѽ ὿ Ѵѽ ߿ ,
Ѫ Ӽ. ٽ ӫѡ ѡ ѡ, Ԭٽ ѡ-
ѡ Ѽѵ ѽ. ү ӽ ٺ὿ ӿ߬ ӫἼ Ѽѡ Կ Ԭ ѡ὿ᵿ
һѡ .
Կ ѡ ٽ Ѽ, Ѽ , ԫ
ѡ ߬ӫ ὿ Ӫ ӫ ѽ὿
ү Կ, ԫ һ ԫ ߽ѡ
ѡ Կ. ӵ ٽ ԫӿ ߽ һ ӫ ⫽Ѽ, ԫٮ ᡴ ߻Ѭԫ ѵ Ӽ. Ӵ ҬѻѡѼ ߿Կ ѵ Ӽ Ѽ,
߿ᵿ ߬ . 1908 . ѽ ԫ Կ
߿ ѿ. Ѭԫߴ ߬ , ѡ ӫ߫ ޽ ߬ . Ҵ Ѽ ӿᵿ , Ӭ ӿ ݡ ѡ ԫԿ . 佴 ӡᵿ ٽ ߫ ӫ Ҽ - 90 . ӫ. ѡ ӡҽ ԫѡ Ѫ ӼἿ ǡ Ӽ᡿,
ԫ 񿻽Կ߬ ѽѮ ѿ .
ǡ߬ ὿ ߫ѡү ү ӫҬ. Ѽ, ߫ ߡ ߬ 󽿴 , ޽
ӫ὿ ӵ ߬ Ѯ Ѯ Ѯү ,
߽Ѽ Ѭԫ᡿ Ѽѵ ݬѼ. Ѻҽ Ѽѵ 󽿴 󫺫Ὣ. ټ Ѯѡټ Ѽѵ ݬ߻߿ ٽ ӫѽ
ѽѺ ӫ. ӡ, ԫ ߿ ѫ᡿Ѽ Ӽ߬
ỿ ӫѽ ԫ߬ ѽѺ ӫ 1888 . ٽ
ѡ ӿ 󡫼 ߫Ѯ ߬ 񿻽Կ߬ (1, .171).
ᬫ ӫ ٽ Ὣ ݬ߻߿. ū߽ ᡿
ӫѽ ԫ߬ ѽѺ ӫ ٽ ߬ ӫѬԫ
ӫ񫽪ѡ ӫѽ. ǡ, Ѯ ٽ ߽ѡ ߼߬ ӿ, ὿ ӫ񫽪 ӫ Ѫ .
ѽ Ҫ ٽ ӫ ,ԫ ԫ ү
Ǻ ᮫Ἷ, ѽѡټ Ἷ Ἷ. 70- ѵ ὿ (ӡԫ)
ѽ, Ӭ὿, ԫ ӿ ޿ߴ ԫ
Ѯ, ԡ ѽѡ 󽿴Ѽ ӿ߬ ӫ߬
"ᡫߴ ӫԿټ" (1, .168). Ѽѡ Ӭ
Ҭѻ Ὣ Ѽѵ "ӫѽѮ ӿ". Ӽ߬ ѡ ӵ ᡿ ѽ ԫ.ӫ
Ҫ һ ӿ, ӿѬѽ Ӽ᡿, ӬἿ ݵ ǡ Ѯ. ᬫ, ԫ ٽ
󿼫 ԫ ӿ ὿ ѽѺ ӫ, ߫񿡴Ѯ ү Ǻ (1, .193). ߬ ѽѺ ӫ ѽ ӿ ի ᪡
ӡ ӿ - ǽѻ, ҽ, ӫի ƿ , Ԭ ߽ , ի . ᡿
ҡԫ Ѻ ԫ 񻫽Ὣ ӫԿ , ԫ ߬ ӫ 񫽪 ٽ ӫԫ ߽ ߬
ѽѺӫ ԫ - ޽ 񿫺 ԫӪѡ
Ѽѵ ỿ ߬ ߬ ߫ - ߫Ἷ
߿߬ ὿, Ѽ Ѽ ӫ ѽѺӫ Ԭ ߬ ᡿. Ѽѡ ߽Ҫ ѽ ݬ߬ ѡ ӵ. ߽ ߿ ٽ ߬ѽ
Ѽ. ѵ ạ Կ 15,5 . . 1 - Ѭ ߫ү
ѡ ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ ԫӿ. Ѽ ὿
ݬ߻ᵿ 20 . ԫӫ ѽѺ ӫ, Ѽ
὿ ᡿ᵿ ѽѡ ӫ, ӫ
ݽѬӫᡵ, ӻ . ӫ ԫ, 󽴽
ᵿ ƿ ӫ ԫ
Ѫ ߿߬ ὿. ӫ 񫽪 ٽ 񽿡 2467
. Ҽ, Ѽ Ӽ᡿Ѯ Ӵ Ҽ 550 . .
ӵ ᬪ ߻ Ӽ߬ ߿ - "Ѽѵ ᡬ"
ѽѡٮ ӫѡ ի ạ. ӫѽ ԫ ӫ ߬ ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ, ,Ѫ , ǡ. Ѽ
ӫ ӫ ὿ ᡿ ӫ ٽ
߫Ӵѡ ѻѫ񫽿ټ Դ. , ԫӫ ԫҽߴ "Ѽѵ ᡬ"
ӫѽ ԫ ӫ, ᬽ Ԭ ߿ӫ᡿ Ѯ ӫ . Ἣ Ӽ᡿ 󴺿
ԫټ ݬ߬ ӫԫ Ὣ ӫ߬
ỿὫ, ԫ ١ҪὫ 濼ѡ ߬ Ѫ. ԫ ٽ
߫Ӵѡ ѻѫ񫽿ټ Կ߬ Դ; ԫ ߬, ԫ ߬ ( Ѽ ᡵҺ߬) ѽ Կ
Կӫ ᬵ ߬ ѽѺ ӫ 﫡߬ Ӫ. ߬ Ӽ ӫѽ ԫ ӫ ѽ
Ὣ Ԭẫ "Ѽѵ ᡬ" ѡ ԫ ӫ, ԫ 濼ѡ, , Կ ѽ. ѼὫ ѻѡ ᬫ
Ѻ ᬵ ٽ 󿡫ԫ ѡ ᮺ 鿽ѽ II,
ԫٮ 󫿼 ӫ ѡ ԫ ߬ ӫ. Ѽѵ ѽѡ ӫѽ ԫ ӫ ὿ "߫ѡټ ѽ ӿԿѼ". ӫ ԫ, 񫽪 ٽ ӫի ӿԫӿ, ѽѡټ Ἷ, ӫѡټ ӫ ӫ. ԡ Ѯտ
߫ѡ ߻ ὿ ߿ѡ ѡ Կ ߽
ӫ ѽѺ ӫ. ѼὫ ѻѡ ߬ ѡἿ. Ѻҽ 󫺼 ߫ ԫӫ
᡿ӫ᡿, ӫѡ ԫѽ , ӫ ӫ Դҽ 2-3 񻫽Ѽ ӫ.
"Ѽѵ ᡬ" Ὣ ߿ ӫ ߬ү ӫ
Ἣԫѽ. ԫ, Ӽ߬ ѽ ӿ޽ Կ
һ ɫ߿ ǡ Ѽ ᬽѡ ߫ѡ . ߫ѡ
ɫ߿Ѯ ӿὫ Ԭѡ ᡿ ᡫ,
ӡ Կ ԫӫ ѫὫ ߬ 󽿴. ޿
һ ٽ ѽ . "Ѽѵ ᡬ" һ
ӫѡ ᬽѽ, Ἣ ᪡ Ԭ , Ѽ ټ, ѼἿ ӿߴ ӿӿ ӿ߬ 󽿴 ߫Ἷ. Ѻҽ ӿ߬ ѽ Ὣ Կ ѽ
߽ ӫ ԫ ӫ. ߽, "Ѽѵ ᡬ" ԫ ѽ Ӵ ῡ߫ᡡ ӫѽ, ԫ ߽ ᬽѡ ӫߡ ߫ѡ ӫ ӫ ޽ ᮡ ѡ.
ӫ 󫮡 ӫ 󽴽 ѻ ӫѡ,
߫ѡ Ѫ ߫ Ԭ, ԫ ߿ ޿ ѡ ѵ ߬ ߫Ἷ , ޿ 󫺼Կ ӫ
ߴ ӫ .
" ѡ" ѬԿ ߻᡿ ݬ߬ ԫ ѡ . ߫ѡ ѬԿټ ٽ ӫ
ѽѺ ӫ 󴺿. ..ѡ , ԫ " ūӫ ѽӫ
ߴ ӫټ, ѡټ, ѼԿ߬, ҽӡټ, 󿽿ԫ߬
ӿԿѼ; ѽ ỿ὿Կ߬ Կ...Կ ӫ
ѡ Ѯ". Կ Կ
. XX Ѭ ޿ ߻ի ѡ Ѽ 󽿴 ӿԫӿ, իڿ ߬ү "ūߡү ӿ". 竡 ӿ߬ ߫ ٽ ӿ ӫѮ޿ ᮫ - Ѯ Ѭ f. ǡ߬ ᡿὿ ѡүڿ ޡѮ
ԫ . ӫ ԫ, ǡ "ѡ" ҫӫ ҡ
ԫټ ӫ ݮѼ Ӵ ԫ, 󬽯 ⫡-, ԫ
߻ ѡ . ӿѬ ᬪ Ӽ᡿, ߡ󡫼 - Ѯ ߿ ѪѮ Ѻ ߬Ѽ. ٽ ߡ ѽѡ Ѫ ӫѮ߬ ԫἿ 󽿴, ԫ Ӽ߬ ݬ߻߿ ٺ ү , ԫ Ҫ ߡ὿ ԫ Ǻ, ү , ǡ ɫ߿. 1885 1893 . Ӽ߬ ݬ߻ ѽߴ 16,5 .
33,25 . ӫ. ӫ ԫ, ߫ Ѽѵ ߿ӫ, 1897 . Ӽ᡿ "ѡ" ߬ , Ѽ ߻᡿ ӫѬԫ ҫӫ ҡ. ԫ ٽ
ԫ ߽ Ӽ߬ ݬ߬ ݬ߻߿. ԫ Ӽ᡿
߫᡿ ݬ߻ᵿ ѽ ѽѺ ӫ ߬ ӡ ߬ ӫ󿡵, ԫ Ѻҽ
὿ Կ߬ ӫѼ Ӽ᡿. ѽѺӫ ᡵ 󽴽 Կ߬ ѡټ Ἷ, ӿ ӫ 󴺿 Ѭ Ѽ
὿ Կ߬ Ѻᡡټ. Ӽ߬ ỿ ὿ ӫԿѮ ߫ ԫӫ ߬
ѡԫ ߻ӡ ᮫ - ԡԿ, Ѭ
ӫի񿽿 ԫ ߼ѡ ѽ, ԫ Ὣ ߬, Ѽѵ ߬ 󽿴. ѽ ߫ѡ Ӭ
ݬ߬ 񫻽Ѭ ӿ὿Կ߬ ӫԿ, ῡ߫ᡡ Կ߬ ῡ߫ᡡ ߫ѡ ѽԡ ᪿ᡿ Կ߬
߫ ѽ.

髺ѡ Ὣ ԫ ạ Դ Ѫ
ӫѮ߬ Ἷ ᡫ , ү , ߫ һѡѼ
ӫѮ߬ ӿ὿Կ߬ү Կ, ӿ Կ߬ ݬ߻߿ ӿԫӿ. ԫ ١Ҫ ӡ үߴ ӫ޽ѡ ӿ὿Կ߬ տڡ һ ߫ ټ ٬Ἷ . ߫ѡ Ӭ
ӿӫ Կ ӫԿ ӿ ӫᵿ ѮѮ ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ - Ӽ᡿ ѮѮ - ǡ. Ӽ߬ ӫ޽ѡ, ߻ Ԭ ١ ԫ , ӿ Ԭ ѡ
߻ѬԿѮ޿ ӿԫӿ , 񫽴 ԫ իߴ ǡ. ạ Կ߬ ݬ߬ , Ѫѽ᡿
һ ӿ Կ Ѯ޿ , ڿ᡿ ѡ
߿ , ᬫѵ, 񿫺 󫮡 ߻߫ ѡ Կ ԫ.
ūԬ ӫߡ ѡ ߻ӫ ߴ ѬԿ Ѯ ѻӿԿ ߫ ԫӫ ߿ ᵿ Ӫế ԫ , ԫ 󽿴
Կ Ѯ .

f

1. ..濽 "ج߻߿ Ӽ߬ ӿ὿ Ѽ ԫ
ҡ ӫ 󫮡"
2. ӽ ӫ "ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫѼ"
3. .. "櫺᡿ ߻ ӿ߬ ӿ"
4. ..὿߬ " ԫӿ ѡ ѡ Ѫҡӫ
ԡѡ"
5. .ѽ "ƫ-ӫ޽ѡٮ Ѽ Ӽ᡿"
6. "ԫӿ ӫ 󫮡"
7. ..ᡫ߬ "ԫ "


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